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Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to function with no central authority or banks; managing transactions and the issuing of bitcoins is carried out collectively by the network. Bitcoin is open-source; its design is public, nobody owns or controls Bitcoin and everyone can take part. Through many of its unique properties, Bitcoin allows exciting applications that could not be covered by any previous payment system. .
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Bitcoin () is a cryptocurrency, a form of electronic money. It's a decentralized electronic currency with no central bank or single administrator that can be sent out of user-to-user on the peer reviewed bitcoin network without the need for intermediaries.7
Transactions are verified by network nodes through cryptography and recorded in a public distributed ledger known as a blockchain. Bitcoin was invented by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto9 and published as open-source software in 2009.10 Bitcoins are made as a reward for a process known as mining.
Research generated by the University of Cambridge estimates that in 2017, there were 2.9 to 5.8 million unique users using a cryptocurrency wallet, the majority of them using bitcoin.12.
Bitcoin has been criticized for its use in illegal transactions, its high power consumption, cost volatility, thefts from exchanges, and the possibility that bitcoin is an economic bubble.13 Bitcoin has also been used as an investment, even though several regulatory agencies have issued investor alerts about bitcoin.14
The domain name"bitcoin.org" was registered on 18 August 2008.15 On 31 October 2008, a link to a paper authored by Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System5 was submitted to some cryptography mailing list.16 Nakamoto implemented the bitcoin applications as open-source code and released it in January 2009.171810 Nakamoto's identity remains unknown.9.
In January 2009, the bitcoin network was created when Nakamoto mined the first block of the chain, known as the genesis block.1920 Embedded in the coinbase of this cube has been the following text:"The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of link second bailout for banks. visit this page "10 This note has been interpreted as either a timestamp and a comment on the instability brought on by fractional-reserve banking.21:18.
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The receiver of the first bitcoin transaction was cypherpunk Hal Finney, who created the very first reusable proof-of-work platform (RPOW) in 2004.22 Finney downloaded the bitcoin applications on its launch , and on 12 January 2009 received ten bitcoins from Nakamoto.2324 Other early cypherpunk fans were founders of bitcoin predecessors: Wei Dai, founder of b-money, and Nick Szabo, founder of bit golden.25 In 2010, the first known commercial transaction using bitcoin occurred when programmer Laszlo Hanyecz purchased two Papa John's pizzas for 10,000 bitcoin.26.
Nakamoto is estimated to have mined one million bitcoins27 before disappearing in 2010, when he handed the network awake key and control of the code repository over to Gavin Andresen. Andresen afterwards became lead programmer at the Bitcoin Foundation.2829 Andresen then sought to decentralize control. This left opportunity for controversy to grow over the future development course of bitcoin.3029.
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After ancient"proof-of-concept" transactions, the first significant consumers of bitcoin were black markets, for example Silk Road. During its 30 months of existence, beginning in February 2011, Silk Road exclusively accepted bitcoins as payment, transacting 9.9 million in bitcoins, worth roughly $214 million.31:222
In 2011, the price started at $0.30 per bitcoin, growing to $5.27 for the year. The cost rose to $31.50 on 8 June. Within a month that the price fell to $11.00. The next month it dropped to $7.80, and in another month to $4.77.32
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Litecoin, an early bitcoin spin-off or altcoin, appeared in October 2011.33 Many altcoins have been created since then.34
In 2012, bitcoin prices started at $5.27 growing to $13.30 for its year.32 By 9 January the price had risen to $7.38, but then crashed by 49 percent to $3.80 within the next 16 days. The price then rose to $16.41 on 17 August, but dropped by 57% to $7.10 within the next 3 times.35.
In March 2013 the blockchain briefly split into two independent chains with different rules. The two blockchains operated simultaneously for six hours, each with its own version of the transaction history. Normal operation was restored when the vast majority of the network downgraded to version 0.7 of their bitcoin applications.37 The Mt.
Gox experienced processing delays because of insufficient capacity44 resulting in the bitcoin cost dropping from $266 to $76 before returning to $160 within six hours.45 The bitcoin price rose to $259 on 10 April, but then dropped by 83 percent to $45 within the next three times.35 On 15 May 2013, US authorities captured accounts associated with Mt.